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India’s Ongoing Teacher Crisis: Policy Education Guide on Quality, Quantity, and Gender

India’s Ongoing Teacher Crisis: Quality, Quantity, and Gender

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Executive Summary

India is reeling under a massive shortage of teachers both in terms of quality and numbers. With the Gross Enrolment Target of 50% by 2030 (Government of India, 2020), the requirement for teachers is likely to rise by leaps and bounds. While catering to this scale of deficit of a number of teachers, Union and state governments also need to consider maintaining the quality of teaching intact. Further, there must be parity in the representation of women in India’s teacher pool.

This paper addresses how India can address its current and future teacher deficits. It suggests interventions that could accelerate the entry of quality teachers into higher education. Such interventions shall also equitably increase the number of women teachers in higher education.

The paper identifies institutional variables like work environment, financial constraints, infrastructural roadblocks, lack of competitive salary or proper faculty development opportunities, lack of institutional will, etc., as reasons for teacher shortage. Further, it discusses variables like legal constraints, poor labour market supply, lack of social status, and lack of systemic incentives as ecosystem-level reasons behind teacher shortage. In terms of gender disparity, the paper discusses the lack of representation in recruitment as a factor. The quality issue is also discussed that may arise while recruiting at scale.

Finally, based on the study, the paper recommends a series of interventions like financial support for institutions, performance evaluation in universities, disclosure mechanisms for teacher shortage, systematising and standardising teacher training in higher education, setting gender-specific targets, performance-linked teacher incentives, etc.

1. Introduction and Background

India is facing a massive teacher shortage in higher education. Around 25-40 % of faculty positions in higher education are vacant based on the current openings (EducationWorld, n.d.). However, if we account for the new GER target in the National Education Policy, the shortage is likely to increase. With such an increase in the requirement of teachers, Government and private institutions would need to redesign their recruitment strategy. With mass-scale recruitment, it will be critical to maintain the quality of the pool that is being hired.

Institutions worldwide need more quality teachers in specific disciplines of higher education institutes. Further, higher education has larger gender disparities leading to a low proportion of female teachers in higher education than males. MHRD data from 2017-18 suggests that only 42% of higher education faculty in India are women (Government of India, 2018). Even out of this 42%, many women hold lower positions in the hierarchy than tenured positions. Low enrolment, high dropout, biases in the hiring process, cultural beliefs about gender roles, and lack of support and agency are also influencing factors.

The present paper addresses how India can bridge the teacher deficit without compromising quality or gender parity principles. It analyses the reasons behind the shortage and recommends steps for the government, private institutions, and regulatory bodies to address it.

2. Problem Statement

To meet the goal of 50% GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio), India requires 3.3 million more trained faculty in HEIs (higher education institutions) by 2035. This need is 235% higher than the current 1.4 million higher education teachers in India. How can India address this deficit without dropping the teacher quality in HEIs or increasing the gender gap in teacher recruitment?

2.1. Aim

To develop a strategy for India to address its higher education teacher shortage with respect to both current demand and future demand of 2035 in an equitable manner that does not compromise teaching quality or skew the gender composition in the hired pool.

2.2. Objectives of the study

  • Suggest approaches to addressing the current and future teacher deficit

  • Recommend interventions that will allow entry of quality teachers in higher education at scale

  • Recommend interventions that equitably increase the proportion of women teachers in the higher education ecosystem

2.3. Scope and Limitations

The study only looks at higher education defined by ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education), i.e., education at the graduation level and higher. This includes colleges and universities – both government and private. Moreover, the study looks at current needs and focuses on future requirements.

Further, the quality metrics the study refers to for teacher eligibility are the minimum qualifications outlined by UGC to teach in government and private universities.

3. Review of existing reports and policies

The National Education Policy 2020, India is being touted as a transformational policy allowing India to meet 21st-century demands. Such a visionary policy needs a robust implementation strategy. Considering the existing social inequalities, the implementation must be aligned with the on-ground context. One of the higher education goals of this policy is to ensure a Gross Enrolment Ratio of 50% by 2035 in HEIs. These ambitious goals require a clear execution plan and active stakeholder engagement. While India has made strides in school GER, its higher education GER has been abysmal.

The first National Policy on Education, in 1968, focused on restructuring the education system. It recommended equity in educational opportunities for SC and ST communities and women. The primary purpose for such a focus was social integration. However, the implementation of that policy could have been better. The successive policies did enhance the GER in school education, but the GER in higher education increased at a plodding pace.

The number of student enrolments in HEIs is 37.4 million (Government of India, 2020). Against the sanctioned strength, the GER is 26.3 %. NEP 2020 suggests meeting 50% GER by “restructuring the curriculum and pedagogy and reforming assessments.”

However, to meet such a GER, India requires 3.3 million more higher education faculty by 2035, considering a teacher-student ratio of 1:15. Considering the perception that teaching is not a coveted occupation in the country, this goal seems ambitious.

The HRD Ministry noted last year that there is a higher education faculty demand-supply gap of about 38%, even though India stands in the fourth position globally in producing the highest number of PhD scholars (Kumar, 2021). In the management field, the latest All India Survey for Higher Education noted that the proportion of management PhD students in the overall share of management students, including post-graduate MBAs, is relatively low. Here, the ratio of potential students to faculty is 60:1; it exceeds the target ratio of 10:1 and will widen the faculty demand-supply gap (Srivastava, 2022).

The union government of India is mulling National Educational Service (NES), which could be as reputed as the other civil services. The NES can create educational leaders who will ensure the teachers in each district meet the quality bar.

One of the main work areas along with teacher recruitment is teacher training. While India has a robust teacher education ecosystem for school teachers, the PhD professors who join a college as faculty undergo limited training. The training is primarily driven by ad hoc Faculty Development Programmes run by the government or the universities. This issue requires a more coherent strategy for maintaining teacher quality in higher education.

Although gender parity has been achieved to a large extent in primary and secondary education, higher education has larger gender disparities leading to a low proportion of female teachers in higher education than males. AISHE 2020 report found that “out of a total of 15,03,156 teachers for 2019-20, about 57.5% are male teachers, and 42.5% are female teachers” (Government of India, 2020). Even out of this 42.5 %, we see women holding lower positions in the hierarchy than tenured positions. The state where this statistic becomes worst is Bihar, with “78.4% male and only 21.6% female teachers.” The report also presents that the total number of teachers at the university level is “around 2.14 lakh, of which 62.9% are male, and 37.1% are female.” Low enrollment, high dropout, biases in the hiring process, cultural beliefs about gender roles, lack of support and agency etc., could be influencing factors here.

In March 2022, Jawaharlal Nehru University’s Teachers’ Association suggested that the percentage of women scholars in the university dipped from 51% in 2015-16 to 41% in 2019-20 (Ghosh, 2022). It also suggested that between 2017 and 2020, only 17.7% of the faculty recruited were women. Gender disparities exist as women climb the academic ladder, especially at the PhD level. In 2017-18, around 1 lakh males were enrolled in PhD as opposed to only 65,000 females (Banchariya, 2019).

With respect to the constitutional take on gender disparity in higher education teacher recruitment, Article 39 of the Indian Constitution requires the State to “direct its policy towards securing for men and women equally the right to an adequate means of livelihood” [Article 39(a)], and “equal pay for equal work for both men and women” [Article 39(d)] (Government of India, 2020). The reality of this, however, is far from ideal. Taboos and stereotypical societal roles have far limited women and other genders. The jarring gender disparities and toxic reinforcement of gender roles across economic strata are shocking proof of how women and different minority genders are disadvantaged. In STEM fields, women form only 13% of faculty in Indian HEIs. This is far less when compared to the pitiful global average of 28% (Mudur, 2022). This paper works under the hypothesis that the gender gap among teachers in Higher Education universities will be further exacerbated in the due process followed to close this teacher shortage gap.

4. Study:

4.1. The extent of the shortage:

According to MHRD, in 2022, 6180 positions across 45 central universities have been vacant out of sanctioned strength of 18956 (Bajeli-Datt, 2022). The extent of vacancies at the Assistant Professor level is 20.7%, 45.98% for associate professors, and 59.8% for professors. Approx. 4502 faculty posts are lying vacant in the Indian Institutes of Technology. 493 teacher positions out of sanctioned strength of 1566 are vacant in the Indian Institutes of Management. Beyond these data points, there is no clear-cut survey data on private university teacher shortage; however, private universities form the majority of higher education institutions in India.

Between 2008 and 2018, the new central universities operate at 52% of faculty strength (Pushkar, 2018). Allahabad university has a shortage of 64.44%, and the same number for Delhi University is 47.7%, respectively. Overall, the total faculty shortage in central universities is 48%. The same number for older universities is 33%.

Uttar Pradesh is the state with the highest teacher shortage in higher education. 2620 teaching positions are unoccupied across 10 central universities in UP (Agrawal, 2022). The non-teaching staff vacancy in UP is a total of 6208 positions. This is the highest in the country. IIT-BHU has 32 teaching and 3441 non-teaching vacancies. The same number for Allahabad university is 622 in teaching and 665 in non-teaching roles. West Bengal has 1249 teaching and 2,256 non-teaching vacancies. The same number for IIT Kharagpur is 798 in teaching and 592 in non-teaching positions.

4.2. Analysis of the reasons for the shortage:

Concept Map: Reasons behind Teacher Shortage in Higher Education

a) Financial constraints: Government institutions usually have limited funding to hire full-time faculty. These positions need to be first sanctioned. As older faculty retire, eventually, there is a shortage. Hence, institutions hire part-time or ad-hoc teachers whole are paid low. Over time, they lose motivation. This impacts their performance.

b) Poor Labour Supply: The number of graduates choosing academia needs to be higher. Most of them turn to mainstream professions like engineering or management. Thus there is an inherent labour market shortage with respect to teachers.

c) Low willpower to recruit new faculty: Private institutions want to maximise revenue. Hence, they prefer hiring short-term faculty. The demand for quality permanent faculty is high. So ad hoc arrangements fill in the shortage without compromising the profits.

d) Legal challenges: The Allahabad high court’s decision to uphold UGC’s circular recommending reservations to fill teacher vacancies halted teacher recruitment across HEIs (India Today Web Desk, 2018). The Supreme Court echoed the decision. The government has filed for review. These legal issues complicate faculty recruitment. Further, some faculty prefer specific locations or do not want to work with poor infrastructure. Some of the new IITs are remotely located, and teacher shortage could be because of that.

e) Infrastructural roadblocks: Another reason for the delay in filling up the vacant positions is the location of these universities. For example, the Mahatma Gandhi Central University in Motihari, Bihar, did not have landline phones for a long time due to its remote location (Sharma, 2018).

f) Incentives: There are few incentives to work in the academy. The salary itself is low. Very few institutions deploy performance-linked incentives.

g) Social Status and Work Environment: Teaching is not a coveted occupation in society. The work environment is usually tricky. These include restrictive bureaucratic procedures, transfers, and administrative work. An overload of courses and unmanageable administrative work may often lead to burnout.

h) Teacher Absenteeism: The faculty inadequacies are also made severe by rampant absenteeism. Further, many faculty members work in more than one college, making themselves unavailable to many students.

4.3. Case Studies - Allahabad University and Delhi University:

Across 45 central universities, teacher vacancies comprise 33% of the sanctioned strength. In 2018, Allahabad University’s vacancies formed 64.44%, and the same figure for Delhi University was 47.7% (Sharma & Dhingra, 2018). The universities facing similar issues resort to hiring temporary teachers to address the deficit. But they are underpaid and undervalued as compared to their permanent counterparts.

Most classes at Allahabad University are taught by Junior Research Fellows. They teach for 2-3 hours a day on a stipend of Rs 30,000 a month (Sharma & Dhingra, 2018). They are considered as good as students by the existing staff. Its Sanskrit department has only four teachers for 1000 UG students, 400 PG students, and 120 research scholars. Delhi University has 3500 ad-hoc teachers. Hiring temporary teachers has been long prevalent. They don’t have job-related benefits like PF, paid leaves, etc.

4.4. Consequences of Faculty shortage:

The shortage of permanent teachers leads to a rise in temporary teachers. Poorly paid temporary faculty have a low motivation impact on learning outcomes in HEIs. Lack of sufficient training aggravates the issue. Overall, India ends up producing mediocre quality graduates at scale who often face low employability.

4.5. Faculty shortage from the lens of gender:

The absence of representation of women and other genders in universities impacts future generations of women scholars who find themselves under-represented in academic spaces. It is a popular argument that a meaningful representation of women, equitable spaces in academic discourse and, supporting and valuing women’s research, creating pathways for their career advancement and recognition will only make future generations of students and workforce look towards higher education in India as an aspirational step. The recruitment policy of India is much different from that of countries like, let’s say, Switzerland.

The UGC policy recommends that the selection committee consisting of the Vice-Chancellor or Acting Vice Chancellor nominate representatives from “minority” communities, including women, if and only if an applicant from the said community is to appear for the selection. The policy also recommends the availability of a two-year (730 days) “child care” leave during the service period, specifically for women teachers only.

The Swiss policy for recruitment recommends a preference rule in the final hiring of the teacher where the preference is given to the equally suitable candidate from the under-represented gender. The policy also recommends and mandates that universities proactively identify promising female academics and invite them to apply.

Interestingly, the proportion of females among college teachers is most noteworthy in smaller countries like Kazakhstan (68%), Belarus (61%) and Mongolia (60%). Furthermore, countries like Turkmenistan and Georgia have achieved an ideal 50:50 proportion regarding the male-female ratio among college teachers.

In India, we do not have to struggle to find model examples as far as the university-teacher ratio of genders is considered. Goa, Kerala, and Punjab reportedly have more female teachers than men in their higher education spaces. The representation of women in these states is worth learning from. An obvious derivation from prevailing societal structures focus on female education would be a good starting point to assess the presence and role of women in academia as well. It is also a logical deduction to make that when both male and female students have equal opportunity to enrol in primary and secondary schools, the same equality will translate to the number proceeding to the higher education level and finding themselves in academic spaces.

4.6. Quality-Quantity tension:

As India plans for increased teacher recruitment, it will have to do so with a deterioration in teaching quality. The quality at many institutions is already impacted due to the lack of available basic facilities. Old classrooms and a lack of dedicated buildings, staffrooms, libraries, resource rooms, etc., plague the Indian higher education landscape.

There is limited training of higher education faculty in this country. Due to poor pedagogy and teaching skills, teaching quality and learning outcomes suffer.

Some teachers don’t see the need for future education. They just meet their daily duties like coming to college and marking attendance. Evidence of actions against the non-performing teachers is hardly found.

The 11th Planning Commission acknowledged the issue of teacher quality (Government of India, 2007). The plan links the quality issue with physical infrastructure, availability of teachers and management of colleges.

Funding shortage is a critical issue in filling vacant teaching posts, increasing reliance on contract teachers of suboptimal quality. The recruitment of undergraduates in teaching professions, ad-hoc recruitment, meagre salaries, and insufficient training have deteriorated the quality of education. Lack of focus on research also leads to low rates of specialisation impacting quality. In 2011, India had 119 researchers per million people. The same number for Japan was 5300 and for the US was 4500. In the United States, 4% of science graduates complete a doctorate. This number is 7% for Europe and 0.4% for India (Civilsdaily, 2021).

4.7. Practices from different countries - Tanzania and Singapore:

i) Case of Tanzania on Addressing Teacher Shortage:

According to Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU), there are 3448 academic staff members at different HEIs (The Citizen, 2019). The numbers are distributed as - 274 professors, 376 associate professors, 783 senior lecturers, and 2015 lecturers. The Tanzania Higher Learning Institutions Trade Union (THTU) in 2017 mentioned the teacher shortage at 44%. The reasons behind the shortage are poor working conditions, low-quality infrastructure, meagre pay, lack of training and low supply. Fifty-three per cent of academic staff at senior levels currently teaching at these institutions have already retired and now work as contracted labour. The TCU, in October 2017, prohibited 19 HEIs from enrolling new students due to poor management. In response, Tanzania focused on teachers’ professional development programmes, provided financial support to pay for the national O Level and A-level examinations, and called in teachers from abroad to train Tanzanian teachers.

ii) Case of Singapore on Maintaining Quality with Scaled-Up Recruitment:

Singapore became independent in 1965. The country lacked natural resources. Poverty was at its peak. Malaria was rampant. The youth was addicted to opium. Society was fragmented due to multiple groups of different religions and ethnicities. Today it is a world leader in education and standard of living. The country excels in math, science, and literacy. High-quality curricula and high-quality teachers have played a significant role in causing such transformation.

Singapore invested heavily in training its teachers. It developed a robust “system for selecting, training, compensating and developing teachers” (Asia Society, n.d.) All teachers are trained at the National Institute of Education at Nanyang Technological University.

Teacher salary is reviewed annually by the Ministry of Education. Teachers can take up 100 hours of professional development focusing on content, pedagogy and leadership development. They receive performance-based appraisals.

With the completion of every three years of teaching, teachers undergo an annual assessment to become either master teachers, curriculum specialists, research specialists or a Principal. If they get these roles, they receive salary increments.

Singapore renewed its education framework. It focuses on strengthening the skill and knowledge of teachers. The focus on teacher training has resolved the attrition issue for the country. Singapore has a centralised system of education. The Ministry, the National Institute of Education and the institutions share a common vision of education. Centralisation eases policy implementation.

5. Outputs of the study:

Teacher Shortage:

  • The teacher shortage is highest at the Professor level. Further, the premier institutes like IITs and IIMs have not less than a 30% teacher shortage.

  • The government needs to figure out a way to assess teacher shortage in private universities, which form most of the higher education institutes in India.

  • Uttar Pradesh and Delhi are among the most struggling states/UTs in teacher shortage and require specific attention to address the same.

  • The reasons for teacher shortage are often cross-cutting and can be categorised as institutional and ecosystem-level reasons. Budget constraints, infrastructural constraints, lack of sufficient training, work environment, etc., can be resolved at the institutional level. However, in the broader ecosystem, the supply of teachers in the labour market, relaxing legal constraints in teacher recruitment, identifying incentives for potential teachers to take up the profession, and promoting the status of the teachers need to be figured out in the ecosystem level.

Gender Parity in Teacher Recruitment:

  • A preferential rule in the final hiring of women teachers is missing.

  • Allocation of recruitment targets specific to gender is much required.

Promoting Quality while addressing Teacher Shortage:

  • Setting subject-specific faculty training institutions is critical in higher education.

  • Infrastructure development to attract quality teachers is a key focus area. This includes classroom development, sufficient resource rooms, libraries, etc.

  • Focus on teacher performance evaluation in higher education institutions is limited.

6. Recommendations

  • Ailing universities and colleges should be identified, and government should initiate a financial support scheme so that teacher availability is not impacted in these universities.

  • Low-performing colleges could be merged to share resources which may make the infrastructure favourable for better faculty recruitment.

  • Salary needs to be looked into to make the teaching profession in higher education competitive, especially at the Professor level, as the maximum shortage is at the Professor level.

  • Government must make it compulsory for private institutions to declare their teacher shortage. UGC audits must check for matches or mismatches between the declared figures and the actual figures. A national survey needs to be conducted in partnership with third-party to assess the teacher shortage in private universities.

  • Performance evaluation mechanisms - both incentives and penalties should be established in each higher education institution.

  • There is a need to identify teacher training experts across the country who could be consulted for enhancing teacher quality in subject-specific training institutions.

  • In addition to content and pedagogy training, teacher training must include social and political topics. The focus should be on developing specialists in education and research. Professional development of teachers can be aided by involving third-party expert institutions in a Public-Private Partnership Model. Career growth opportunities and NES entry can make the role lucrative. However, the basis of such progression should involve training and performance evaluation.

  • Mandating professional development hours can make it imperative for institutions to prioritise professional development.

  • NAAC guidelines on faculty recruitment need to adhere to by educational institutions.

  • Assessment at the end of faculty training will allow institutions to identify levels at which teachers are coming. So institutions scaling up their recruitment can address the risk of diluting quality.

  • Each university should have a standard subject-specific performance evaluation structure for teachers, and the government should suggest the same in the form of a set of guidelines.

  • Institutions should be incentivised through grants and aid if they implement a preferential rule to hire women faculty.

  • Each state government could set a context-specific target for women faculty recruitment for each of its colleges.

7. Conclusion:

The teacher shortage in higher education in India requires a multi-dimensional strategy that includes performance-linked incentives, competitive salaries, focus on professional development at an institutional level. At an ecosystem level, it requires financing schemes for struggling institutions through grants, training standardisation, the merger of low-performing institutions, disclosure mechanisms for private institutions to declare shortage, gender-specific preferential recruitment, institutional incentives for such preferential recruitment, etc. It is critical to note that these measures not only just target the current deficits but also prevent future deficits that may arise when India moves closer to its 50% GER target.

Meet The Thought Leaders

Karan Patel (he/him) is a mentor at GGI an undergraduate from IIT Madras. He is correctly employed with Teachmint, an ed-tech start-up in their strategy team. Prior to Teachmint, he worked at Dalberg Advisors as an analyst where he worked with multi-laterals and international foundations on gender, education and energy sectors. He has also interned in MIT Sloan, Qualcomm and IIM Ahmedabad giving him a plethora of experience in the corporate and academic world. He also started his own venture in hyperlocal air-quality monitoring. Karan is an avid sport-person and masala chai fanatic.

Meet The Authors (GGI Fellows)

Tejaswini Halthore is currently working at Teach For India as part of their Development team. An Engineer by education, she found her calling within the realm of the development sector and believes this will be her life's work. She deeply admires work places that foster and value individual wellbeing and collective growth. She is a passionate Bharatanatyam dancer and strives to experiment, question norms and discover herself within the artform. Running and reading bring her peace.

Pritish Anand is an education sector leader with 6 years and 8 months of experience working in areas like teaching students from marginalised backgrounds, designing curricula and leading educational programs. He is currently pursuing a Master's in Public Policy at Kautilya School of Public Policy, GITAM. An engineer by degree and a teacher at heart, Pritish's current interests lie in designing safe learning ecosystems for adolescent students with adverse childhood experiences. In his free time, he loves to binge-watch political documentaries.

Yusuf Turabi is the co-founder and Marketing Head at Careerbolt, a tech-based platform that strives to connect the workforce to the workspace, helping students land their dream jobs. Raised in a small town Ujjain, he has done his Btech from the Indian Institute of Technology Dharwad. With the lens of an entrepreneur, his fascination with technology inspires him to forge tech-savvy organizations for the greater good. He is a consistent hunter of stressing issues to humanity and keeps seeking out possible solutions. His pedigree of reading books blended with a few hours of Dance and Tennis further fuel his calm and composite demeanor. Being a gourmet, exploring diverse cuisines celebrated in varied regions worldwide fits his empty slots of a packed schedule. Lastly, his desire to uplift and positively influence the lives of millions of people drives him to contribute to society through overarching initiatives such as Rational Eloquence Unit IITdh, a unit that fosters soft skills within the students, making them industry ready."

If you are interested in applying to GGI's Impact Fellowship program, you can access our application link here.



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